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Song, Yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties (960-1911)

 
2007-12-13 Hits:6828
 

 

        Following the Tang Dynasty came a period of almost continual warfare known as the Five Dynasties and Ten States. In 960, Zhao Kuangyin, a general of the State of Later Zhou, established the Song Dynasty (960-1279), historically known as the Northern Song Dynasty. When the Song Dynasty moved its capital to the south, historically called the Southern Song Dynasty, it brought advanced economy and culture to the south, giving a great impetus to economic development there. China in the Song Dynasty was a world leader in astronomy, science and technology and printing technology. Bi Sheng invented movable type printing, a major revolution in the history of printing. 

 

 

        In 1206, Genghis Khan established the Mongolian Khanate. In 1271, Kublai, a grandson of Genghis Khan, conquered the Central Plains, founded the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368), and made Dadu (today's Beijing) the capital. Kublai ended the centuries-long situation in which many independent regimes existed alongside each other, by forming one united state that brought Xinjiang, Tibet and Yunnan under its sway. During the Song-Yuan period, the "four great inventions" in science and technology of the Chinese people in ancient times - papermaking, printing, the compass and gunpowder - were further developed and introduced to foreign countries, making great contributions to world civilization.

 

 

        In 1368, Zhu Yuanzhang established the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) in Nanjing, reigning as Emperor Taizu. When his son and successor Zhu Di (r. 1360-1424) ascended the throne in 1402, he built and expanded the palaces, temples, city walls and moats in Beijing on a large scale. In 1421, he officially moved the capital to Beijing. During his reign, he dispatched a eunuch named Zheng He to lead a fleet of many ships to make six far-ranging voyages. In 1431, Zhu Di's grandson, Emperor Xuanzong dispatched Zheng He to make the seventh voyage. Passing the Southeast Asian countries, the Indian Ocean, Persian Gulf and Maldives Islands, Zheng He explored as far as Somalia and Kenya on the eastern coast of Africa. These were the largest-scale and longest voyages in the world before the age of Columbus.

 

 

        The Manchus of northeast China established the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) in 1644. The best known of the Qing Dynasty emperors, Kangxi (r. 1661-1722) restored the central empire's rule over Taiwan, and resisted invasions by tsarist Russia. To reinforce the administration of Tibet, he also formulated the rules and regulations on the confirmation of the Tibetan local leaders by the Central Government. He effectively administered more than 11 million sq km of Chinese territory. 


 Dynasty

Date 

 Xia

 2070-1600 BC

 Shang

 1600-1046 BC

 Western Zhou

 1046-771 BC

 Eastern Zhou

 

 Spring and Autumn Period

 770-476 BC

 Warring States Period

 475-221 BC

 Qin

 221-206 BC

 Western Han

                   206 BC-AD 25                  

 Eastern Han

 25-220

 Three Kingdoms (Wei, Shu and Wu)

 220-280

 Western Jin

 265-317

 Eastern Jin

 317-420

                  Southern and Northern Dynasties            

 420-589

 Sui

 581-618

 Tang

 618-907

 Five Dynasties

 907-960

 Northern Song

 960-1127

 Southern Song

 1127-1279

 Yuan

 1271-1368

 Ming

 1368-1644

 Qing

 1644-1911

 


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